Sunday, April 26, 2009

The Intel 8080

Intel 8080 was a first microprocessor designed and built by Intel. The central processing unit of treatment 8 bits was in April 1974 released operation with 2 megahertz (with 640.000 instructions a second), and is generally considered the first design truly usable of central processing unit of treatment of microprocessor. It was application in the NMOS.

Model of programming

Intel 8080 was the successor at Intel 8008; it was due to its source-compatible being assembly language, since it employed the same whole of instruction developed by company of computer terminal. The great packing of IMMERSION of 40 terminals 8080 ' S enabled him to provide an adress bus of 16 bits and a data bus to 8 bits, to leave easy access to 64 kilobytes of memory.


The processor had seven registers with 8 bits, six of which could be combined in three pairs of 16 bits of register (BEFORE JESUS CHRIST, Of and HL). It also had the accumulator with 8 bits, the indicator of pile of 16 bits to the memory (replacing pile 8008 ' S interns), and a meter of program of 16 bits.

operations of 16 bits

In spite of the fact that the 8080 were generally a processor with 8 bits, it could also charge immediate any pairs with register (LXI), increment or d�cr�menter records of them pairs (INX, DCX), add the pairs of register (DAD), commutates HL with (XCHG) and carries out the arithmetic shift of 16 bits (DAD H) with an order. Consequently some operations of 16 bits were already possible.

The left space of input-output

The 8080 supported to 256 ports of the input-output (input-output), reached of the programs via the devoted input-output instruction-each instruction taking an address of wearing of input-output as a its operand. It arrangement-using a separate address of input-output space-is generally used now less than the cartography of memory of the ports/devices of input-output. Per hour of launching 8080 ' S, this input-output tracing arrangement was seen as favours, because it released to the top the limited number of the processor of pins of address for space of addressing of memory. In the majority of other architectures of central processing unit of treatment, however, the cartography of the wearing of input-output in a space of common addressing for the memory and the input-output, gave a simpler whole of instruction; no need for separate instructions of input-output. The left arrangement of input-output of 8080 models continued in families 8085 and x86 of Intel of the microprocessors, as well as the series of Zilog Z80.

Use of Pine

The adress bus had its clean 16 pins, and the data bus had 8 terminals which were possible to employ without multiplexing. Using the two additional pins (read and write the signals), it was possible to assemble the simple microcontr�leurs very easily. Only separated space, the interruptions and the DMA of i/o required additional pieces to decode the signals of pin of processor. However the load capacity of processor was limited, and even the simple computers frequently contained amplifiers of bus.

There was an enormous table after this that I abstained from to be added due to the length of the post.

Applications and successors

The 8080 were employed in many first microcomputers, such as the computer of the ALTAIR 8800 of MITS, final computer of technology SOL-20 of processor and microcomputer of IMSAI 8080, forming the base for machines running the CP/M of the operating system (more later, entirely compatible and the able, processor of Zilog Z80 would benefit from this, with Z80 and CP/M becoming the dominant combination of central processing unit of treatment and OS of the period just like x86 and MS-DOS for the PC per decade later). The first individual-board microcomputer was based on the 8080. The company Landis and Gyr employed it on its equipment by data acquisition electric regulator, WORKING Datagyr during the beginning of the year eighty.

Moreover, several first video games of arcade were established around microprocessor 8080. The invaders of space were perhaps most popular one such title.

Little time after the launching of the 8080, the design of competition of Motorola 6800 was presented, and after this, technology 6502Zilog of MOS presented Z80, which had an instruction in regulated compatible machine language and has at the beginning employed the same thing assembly language like the 8080, but for legal reasons, Zilog developed a syntactic-different alternative assembly language for Z80. To Intel, the 8080 were followed of 8085 compatible and electrically the more elegant, and later from the 8086 of 16 compatible bits assembly language and then 8/16-bit 8088, which was chosen by IBM so that its new PC is launched in 1981. The 8080, via its BOARD, thus made a durable impact on the history of computer. variation of the 6800.

The Soviet Union manufactured of the 8080 KP580.K80 called analogues complete (marked later like KP580BM80), where even the pins were placed identically. This processor was probably the base of Radio86RK the individual-board computer of the most popular amateur in the Soviet Union. The predecessor of Radio86RK was the Microphone-80 ( ..... - 80 in the Russian), and his successor Orion-128 (..... - 128 in the Russian) which had a graphic posting.

8080 also changed how computers were created. When the 8080 were presented, of the computing systems were usually created by computer manufacturers such as Digital Equipment Corporation, Hewlett Packard, or IBM. A manufacturer would produce the whole computer, including the processor, the terminals, and the software system such as compilers and operating system. The 8080 were conceived really for Juste approximately any application except a complete computing system. Hewlett Packard developed the HP 2640 series of intelligent terminals around the 8080. The HP 2647 was a terminal which ran the BASIC on the 8080. Microsoft would create the first popular computer programming language for the 8080, and acquerrait later DOS for the IBM-PC.

It is the end of these post and next time which I will make sure that I do not write anything about the processors unimportant and only the important ones.

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